高级检索
    马雪, 钱迈平, 蒋仁, 刘凯, 所颖萍, 项红莉. 辽西早白垩世圣贤孔子鸟(Confuciusornis sanctus)飞行能力解析[J]. 华东地质, 2024, 45(2): 198-205. DOI: 10.16788/j.hddz.32-1865/P.2024.02.005
    引用本文: 马雪, 钱迈平, 蒋仁, 刘凯, 所颖萍, 项红莉. 辽西早白垩世圣贤孔子鸟(Confuciusornis sanctus)飞行能力解析[J]. 华东地质, 2024, 45(2): 198-205. DOI: 10.16788/j.hddz.32-1865/P.2024.02.005
    MA Xue, QIAN Maiping, JIANG Ren, LIU Kai, SUO Yingping, XIANG Hongli. The analysis on the flight capability of the early Cretaceous Confuciusornis sanctus from western Liaoning, China[J]. East China Geology, 2024, 45(2): 198-205. DOI: 10.16788/j.hddz.32-1865/P.2024.02.005
    Citation: MA Xue, QIAN Maiping, JIANG Ren, LIU Kai, SUO Yingping, XIANG Hongli. The analysis on the flight capability of the early Cretaceous Confuciusornis sanctus from western Liaoning, China[J]. East China Geology, 2024, 45(2): 198-205. DOI: 10.16788/j.hddz.32-1865/P.2024.02.005

    辽西早白垩世圣贤孔子鸟(Confuciusornis sanctus)飞行能力解析

    The analysis on the flight capability of the early Cretaceous Confuciusornis sanctus from western Liaoning, China

    • 摘要: 发现于辽宁省西部的早白垩世湖相沉积岩地层的圣贤孔子鸟(Confuciusornis sanctus)骨架化石及其围绕的羽毛化石,呈现出鸟类飞行的早期演化特征:①圣贤孔子鸟的胸骨不发达,不发育龙骨突,标志着飞行能力弱,而现代善于飞行的鸟类的胸骨和龙骨突发达,附着的大块飞行肌肉可占体重20%以上。②圣贤孔子鸟的前肢具有3个灵活的手指,指爪大,呈镰刀状,更善于爬树,作为对比,现代善于飞行鸟类的前肢具有一组小翼羽,用于调节通过翅膀表面的气流,避免大攻角时发生失速,确保顺利起飞或降落。另一方面,圣贤孔子鸟也展现出某些进步的特征:①圣贤孔子鸟具有轻便而无牙齿的角质喙,用于啄食;仅有8节尾椎,末端有一个尾综骨,用于附着扇状尾羽,可提供关键的控制面,有利于随时控制飞行方向和速度(特别是在起飞和降落时);其明显膨大的肱骨近端具有一个卵形凹陷,推断是一种气囊系统构造,减轻了骨架的结构重量。②圣贤孔子鸟拥有发达的羽毛系统,几乎和现代飞行鸟类相同,十分有利于飞行。圣贤孔子鸟的翼形属于宽短形,与现代雉类相似,反映它们的飞行方式很可能相同。

       

      Abstract: The skeletons and surrounded plumages aura fossil of Confuciusornis sanctus discovered in early Cretaceous lacustrine sedimentary stata in western Liaoning Province, China shed new light on the early evolution of their avian flight as follows: ① Confuciusornis sanctus’ sternums were weak and less keeled, a signal its poor flight aptitude, while a modern skillful flying bird’s sternum is strong and carinate with bulky pectoral flight muscles accounting for more than 20 percent of the body weight. ② Confuciusornis sanctus’ forelimbs possess three flexible digits with large and sickle-like claws apt for tree climbing yet decreased flying function. In contrast to the corresponding positions of the modern sophisticated flying birds, it possessed an alula for regulating the flow of air passing the surfaces of the wings to ensure smoothly and avoid the stall at a large angle of incidence during taking off or landing. On the other hand, Confuciusornis sanctus exhibited some advanced features: ① Confuciusornis sanctus’ portable toothless horny beaks suited to pecking; a shorten tail of only 8 caudal vertebrae and a pygostyle for attachment of the fan-like tail feathers, providing critical surfaces, beneficial to controlling flight direction and speed instantly, especially during taking off and landing; an inflated evidently proximal part of the humerus which had an oval depression, perhaps showing an air sac system, lightened the structural weight of the skeleton. ② Confuciusornis sanctus had developed feather system, almost same to the modern flying birds and beneficial to flight. The wing-shape of a Confuciusornis sanctus was short and broad as that in a chicken-like bird, indicating possible similar flight manner.

       

    /

    返回文章
    返回